Health care practitioners in managed care pharmacy design and implement drug benefits for the patients. Drug benefits ensure broad access to needed medications and include programs and incentives that improve patient health while keeping costs under control. Managed care pharmacy helps to ensure that those drug benefits are delivered in a safe and cost-effective manner … Continue reading What is Managed Care Pharmacy?
In Baghdad the first pharmacies, or drug stores, were established in 754, under the Abbasid Caliphate during the Islamic Golden Age. By the 9th century, these pharmacies were state-regulated. Arabic herbal medicine guidebook De Materia Medica of Dioscorides. Cumin & dill. c. 1334. The advances made in the Middle East in botany and chemistry led medicine in medieval Islam substantially to develop pharmacology. Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes) (865-915), for instance, acted to … Continue reading FAQ 8: Do you know where and when world’s first ever Pharmacy outlet opened?
Ramadan is the holy month of fasting in which Muslims refrain from food, fluids, oral medications and smoking from sunrise until sunset. The Koran specifically exempts from fasting those for whom it may have harmful consequences, such as pregnant women, the elderly and those with medical conditions. Fasting is not recommended for type 1 diabetes … Continue reading FAQ 7: As a Pharmacist what is your recommendation for a patient who is taking Insulin for diabetes melitus and would like to be fasting during the day for a particular period of time to perform his/her religious direction during Holy Ramadaan?
Pharmacovigilance Pharmacovigilance (PV) is defined as the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problem (1). WHO established its Programme for International Drug Monitoring in response to the thalidomide disaster detected in 1961. Together with the WHO Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring, Uppsala, … Continue reading FAQ 5: What is Pharmacovigilance?
1. Drugs with; "larger therapeutic index and lower lethal dose". 2. Drugs with; "smaller therapeutic index and higher lethal dose". 3. Drugs with; "equal therapeutic index and lethal dose". 4. Drugs with; "larger therapeutic index and higher lethal dose". 5. Drugs with; "smaller therapeutic index and lower lethal dose". Answer: Right answer is the condition … Continue reading FAQ 4: Considering Therapeutic Index & Lethal Dose; which one from the below conditions is applicable to be a relatively safer drug for the patients in terms of overdose toxicity & side effects?
ANTIDOTE INDICATION MODE OF ACTION DOSAGE Flumazenil Benzodiazepine overdose Acts on benzodiazepine receptors to block central effects of benzodiazepine. 0.2mg through IV for 30 seconds. If there is no response, 0.3mg can be given for another 30 seconds. Additional doses at 0.5mg at 30-60 second intervals until a total dose of 3mg is achieved.
ANTIDOTE INDICATION MODE OF ACTION DOSAGE Amyl Nitrite Cyanide poisoning Facilitates conversion of hemoglobin to methemoglobin to inhibit cyanide’s affinity to cytochrome oxidase enzymes thereby inhibiting its toxic effects. Ampoule contents should be inhaled for 30 seconds every minute. Use new ampoule every three minutes. Cyanokit (Hydroxo-cobalamin) Cyanide poisoning Binds with cyanide … Continue reading FAQ 2: What are the right antidotes and doses for Cyanide poisoning? How does it works (Mode of action)?